Wound healing is a complex process made up of three main stages:
Inflammation – leaked blood coagulates with platelets and fibrin; and white blood cells, growth factors, enzymes and nutrients travel to the site of injury,
Proliferation – granulation tissue forms comprised of collagen and extracellular matrix. Angiogenesis also occurs.
Remodeling – collagen is remodeled from type I to type III and the wound fully closes.
Some wounds do not heal by themselves and these require a skin substitute. Ongoing research endeavours to find new biomaterials which can be utilized. Decellularised extracellular matrix is one of the most promising ways of finding new skin graft material. The best results have been achieved when decellularised cadaveric tissue of the same species have been used (allografts) but the difficulty lies in availability of this material. Porcine and bovine tissue have been used worldwide for use with different species (xenografts) but goat tissue may be an important alternative .
Dhasmana et al (2018) fabricated a novel acellular goat dermal scaffold (AGDS) by decellularizing cadaver goat-skin. Animal testing of the AGDS, for treating full-thickness excisional wounds in albino mice, revealed the recovery of the full-thickness wounds in a 2 week period without any significant inflammatory or immunogenic response and without any scar formation. The AGDS was modified with silk fibroin (SF), honey (H) and eggshell membrane protein (ESMP) to develop hybrid scaffolds. The hybrids showed faster wound healing than that seen in the AGDS alone. The authors concluded that ‘the AGDS and its hybrid scaffolds will find potential applications as a skin substitute in wound healing and skin tissue engineering’.
Dhasmana,A., Singh,L., Roy,P., Dinda,A.K., Bhattacharyya,S. and Mishra,N.C. (2018) Extracellular Matrix Based Skin Grafts from Goat Skin for Wound Healing and Skin Tissue Engineering. Madridge Journal of Dermatology and Research 3 (1), 59 – 67.